Swinhoe’s Rail (Coturnicops exquisitus) must be one of east Asia’s least known birds. Traditionally, the most reliable place to encounter it was in the wet grass around Poyang Lake in winter but sightings from there have become increasingly scarce.. and due to its secretive behaviour, it is encountered only very infrequently on migration, even in relatively well-watched areas such as Happy Island and Beidaihe in coastal China.
It was only two years ago that Wieland Heim, Tom Wulf and Alex Thomas (of the Amur Birding Project) first recorded the ‘song’ of this secretive bird at Muraviovka Park in southeastern Russia. And in July 2017, armed with this new knowledge, Paul Holt was the first to discover singing birds in China at Wuerqihan in northern Inner Mongolia.
Wuerqihan is a wonderful place… it is very popular with bird photographers in winter when, despite the bitter temperatures (as low as -35 degrees Celsius), it’s possible to see very well species such as Great Grey, Hawk, Ural, Tengmalm’s, Eagle and Little Owls plus other photogenic birds such as Hazel Grouse, Black Grouse, Siberian Jay, Pine Grosbeak, Pallas’s Rosefinch and, if you are lucky, Black-billed Capercaillie, . It is less well-known that summer is also pretty special. In addition to the recently-discovered Swinhoe’s Rail, it is a brilliant site to see Pallas’s and Gray’s Grasshopper Warblers, Lanceolated Warbler, Band-bellied Crake, Pale-legged, Two-barred Greenish, Dusky and Radde’s Warblers, Eyebrowed Thrush, Oriental Cuckoo and many more species. It is also just wonderful to spend time in pristine lush wet meadows, mixed deciduous forest and grassland that are all teeming with life.
I had already made two short summer trips to Wuerqihan, in 2016 with Nick Green and in 2017 with Derrick Wilby and I was keen to return. So, with Marie, we set aside a few days to fly to Hailar, rent a car and drive the 2.5 hours east to Wuerqihan.
We were keen just to enjoy the break and some good birding but of course we were also hoping to encounter the Swinhoe’s Rail.
Our first day would coincide with the last day of the visit by British birder, Jon Holmes, for whom I had arranged local guide Zhang Wu and his 4×4 to take him around. And on day two we bumped into another Brit, Dave Woodford, accompanied by Chinese bird guide, Steven An.
The call of Swinhoe’s Rail is reasonably loud and carries for quite a distance… and during our first evening on site, we had no difficulty in hearing the Swinhoe’s Rails from the track, calling from the wet grass. Being poorly prepared (no wellies or torch), we decided to call it a night, do a spot of shopping in the town the following day and return the next evening.
After each picking up a pair of wellies for CNY 40 (about GBP5) we arrived on site, with Steven and Dave, around 6pm, about 2.5 hours before dusk. Already, one bird was calling intermittently and, before long, two or three began calling. We donned our wellies and headed along the edge of the meadow, stopping regularly to listen to the birds as they began calling more frequently as dusk approached. You can hear a bit about our first encounter here:
Suddenly, a dark shape flew up in front of Dave and dropped into the grass about 15m away. It was tiny and dark with obvious white secondaries – Swinhoes’ Rail! Almost immediately it began to call and, having my sound recording gear with me, I was fortunate to capture this seldom heard, and rarely recorded, sound.
We were stunned and stood still, just soaking up the moment. The wonderful rich colours of the meadow at sunset, not a breath of wind and Swinhoe’s Rails calling amongst the Pallas’s Grasshopper Warblers, Common Rosefinches, Japanese Quails and Common Cuckoos. Simply mesmerising.
That moment will stay with us for a very long time. And as we made our way back to the vehicles, we were accompanied by a cacophony of birdsong with Common Cuckoos seemingly all around, Pallas’s Grasshopper Warblers reeling away and Japanese Quails uttering their squelchy call. Magical.
The Chinese name for Swinhoe’s Rail is 花田鸡 (Huātián jī). Literally translated it means “flower frog”, a fantastically descriptive and apt name.
Over the next few days, we enjoyed some pretty special encounters with some wonderful birds including a stunning Great Grey Owl in the evening light.
Pacific Swifts were common in the town, breeding in many of the buildings, particularly the older properties.
And the omnipresent Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler occasionally showed well, belying its reputation as an extreme skulker.
We recorded 98 species during our visit and had a fantastic time. Wuerqihan is a brilliant birding destination and thoroughly recommended in summer or winter. It is probably also extremely good in spring and autumn but, as far as I know, no birders have visited in that season.
Anyone wanting to visit should contact local guide, Zhang Wu, who can arrange pick-up and drop-off from Hailar airport, accommodation and food, and, with his unbreakable 4×4 and local knowledge, he will ensure any visiting birder gets to the right places and has a superb time. Although he speaks no English, it’s possible to communicate the basics using a combination of sign language and the impressive translation APP on his smartphone, and you can guarantee he will work hard to try to connect you with any target species. He can be contacted directly on +86 13614709187 and, for any non-Chinese speakers, I’d be happy to help make arrangements if required.
Big thanks to Marie, Jon, Dave, Steven and Zhang Wu for being great company during the trip. And a big hat-tip to the Amur Bird Project team and Paul Holt for their discoveries in 2016 and 2017 which enabled us to connect with the enigmatic Swinhoe’s Rail.
12 thoughts on “The Search for Swinhoe’s Rail”
Sounds like a great trip Terry. Thanks for sharing.
Thanks Tom… you’d love it up there!
What goes around comes around.
Another fascinating blog Terry – Swinhoe’s Rail’s a bird I’ve long wanted to see. I’d corresponded with Paul Holt after he saw it at Wu’erqihan last year (24 birds at nine discrete sites I understand!) & he’s generously told me exactly where to go. I hope to visit in June next year & am delighted that you actually saw one. It’s interesting to note that the Muraviovka Park team in a similarly fascinating, well-illustrated, note in the August 2017 issue of BirdingAsia (27:49-530) acknowledge that Mr Holt provided them with a sound recording of a bird he’d encountered many years ago at Poyang Lake, Jiangxi, China. It seems they confirmed their Muraviovka birds using Paul’s recording and I understand that Paul subsequently confirmed the presence of birds at Wu’erqihan using information they supplied him. It just goes to prove the old adage ‘What goes around comes around’. Roll on June 2019 but in the meantime please keep these blogs coming Terry – they’re an inspiration!
Hi Chris. Thank you. Yes, some great teamwork involved in the initial discoveries.. and thank you for specifying the BirdingAsia reference; a very good article by the Amur Birding team (by the way, BirdingAsia is a great journal for anyone interested in Asian birding – join the Oriental Bird Club to receive it regularly!). It seems from the most recent posts by the Amur Bird Project that, given the changes in habitat caused by recent fires, Swinhoe’s Rail has not yet been recorded there this year, which makes the Inner Mongolian population even more significant. Good luck for next year and let me know if you need any help or advice. Terry
Thank you for all your wonderful reports – it feels as if I was there.
Thank you, David!
Hi Terry, Suncheon Bay in South Korea is the only place I have seen multiple Swinhoe’s rail in 1 day but that was quite a few years ago though the area is large I am sure they still occur there.
Thanks Arthur. Suncheon sounds like a good place. In which season were your sightings?
It was late September, I saw 3 of them but felt sure there were more of them, the grasses and road edges were full of birds, thrushes, Baillon’s crake, 3 Oriental white storks in the shallows along the reed edges, there were birds popping up and dropping back into the vegetation too quick to get on to. That was back in 2001 and the Koreans have ‘developed’ a lot of the area since, car parks, tourist boat rides complete with Korean music, ‘nature centres’ with pinioned water birds for the tourists to see up close, all at a price. It is very sad and so maddening. They are slowly wakening up but not as fast as to be making any dramatic improvements.. I have been living here since 1985 before any foreign birders to my knowledge and seen birds then that were not here in the 90’s. I will try to get down there again this year and scour the place for Swinhoe’s rails.
Sounds wonderful, Arthur! Well worth a return visit, I should think, despite the ‘development’.
Nice post! Rallids are always extremely difficult to find. I remember standing in front of a calling Baillon’s Crake hidden in a bush just 2 metres in front of me but I couldn’t find it!
Thank you. Yes, rails and crakes can be extremely elusive and, if they are not vocalising, will often go undetected.